SCAPULAR DYSKINESIS AND ITS RELATION TO SHOULDER PAIN PDF

Abstract The scapula fulfils many roles to facilitate optimal function of the shoulder. Normal function of the shoulder joint requires a scapula that can be properly aligned in multiple planes of motion of the upper extremity. Scapular dyskinesis, meaning abnormal motion of the scapula during shoulder movement, is a clinical finding commonly encountered by shoulder surgeons. It is best considered an impairment of optimal shoulder function. As such, it may be the underlying cause or the accompanying result of many forms of shoulder pain and dysfunction.

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Abstract The scapula fulfils many roles to facilitate optimal function of the shoulder. Normal function of the shoulder joint requires a scapula that can be properly aligned in multiple planes of motion of the upper extremity. Scapular dyskinesis, meaning abnormal motion of the scapula during shoulder movement, is a clinical finding commonly encountered by shoulder surgeons. It is best considered an impairment of optimal shoulder function. As such, it may be the underlying cause or the accompanying result of many forms of shoulder pain and dysfunction.

The present review looks at the causes and treatment options for this indicator of shoulder pathology and aims to provide an overview of the management of disorders of the scapula. Keywords: Dyskinesis, instability, scapula Introduction Normal scapula function is essential for optimal shoulder function in all individuals and, in particular, the overhead throwing athlete.

Scapula control and positioning allows for optimal positioning of the humerus in relation to the glenoid transferring power from the core to the distal upper extremity. Abnormalities of scapula function can be seen in many patients. It presents clinically as asymmetry in scapular motion compared to the contralateral side, either in elevation or descent, leading to a disrupted motion.

In a static sense, it may present as a prominence of the scapula or a resting position of protraction compared to the other side.

Scapular dyskinesis can be defined as a collective term that refers to movement of the scapula that is dysfunctional and may create a possible impairment of overall shoulder function, although it may also represent the cause of persistent shoulder symptoms or may be the manifestation of underlying structural shoulder pathology in many types of shoulder injury.

Anatomical concepts of the scapula The scapula is attached to the axial skeleton via the clavicle through the acromioclavicular AC and sternoclavicular joints. It has muscular attachments to the posterior aspect of the ribcage via trapezius, rhomboids and serratus anterior. Core strength is transferred via the glenohumeral joint to the arm and hand by optimal coupling of the muscle activations and bony motion.

The scapula has relatively limited bony attachments and is therefore dependent on mostly muscle activation for mobility and stability. The clavicle acts as a strut for the shoulder complex, connecting the scapula to the axial skeleton.

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