LACOUE-LABARTHE MIMESIS PDF

Plato[ edit ] Both Plato and Aristotle saw in mimesis the representation of nature , including human nature, as reflected in the dramas of the period. In Ion, he states that poetry is the art of divine madness, or inspiration. As Plato has it, truth is the concern of the philosopher. As culture in those days did not consist in the solitary reading of books, but in the listening to performances, the recitals of orators and poets , or the acting out by classical actors of tragedy, Plato maintained in his critique that theatre was not sufficient in conveying the truth c.

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Plato[ edit ] Both Plato and Aristotle saw in mimesis the representation of nature , including human nature, as reflected in the dramas of the period. In Ion, he states that poetry is the art of divine madness, or inspiration. As Plato has it, truth is the concern of the philosopher. As culture in those days did not consist in the solitary reading of books, but in the listening to performances, the recitals of orators and poets , or the acting out by classical actors of tragedy, Plato maintained in his critique that theatre was not sufficient in conveying the truth c.

He was concerned that actors or orators were thus able to persuade an audience by rhetoric rather than by telling the truth b.

Socrates warns we should not seriously regard poetry as being capable of attaining the truth and that we who listen to poetry should be on our guard against its seductions, since the poet has no place in our idea of God. Those who copy only touch on a small part of things as they really are, where a bed may appear differently from various points of view, looked at obliquely or directly, or differently again in a mirror.

Art is not only imitation but also the use of mathematical ideas and symmetry in the search for the perfect, the timeless, and contrasting being with becoming. Nature is full of change, decay, and cycles, but art can also search for what is everlasting and the first causes of natural phenomena. Aristotle wrote about the idea of four causes in nature.

The first, the formal cause , is like a blueprint, or an immortal idea. The second cause is the material cause, or what a thing is made out of. The third cause is the efficient cause, that is, the process and the agent by which the thing is made. The fourth, the final cause, is the good, or the purpose and end of a thing, known as telos. Poetics is his treatise on the subject of mimesis. Aristotle was not against literature as such; he stated that human beings are mimetic beings, feeling an urge to create texts art that reflect and represent reality.

Aristotle considered it important that there be a certain distance between the work of art on the one hand and life on the other; we draw knowledge and consolation from tragedies only because they do not happen to us.

Without this distance, tragedy could not give rise to catharsis. However, it is equally important that the text causes the audience to identify with the characters and the events in the text, and unless this identification occurs, it does not touch us as an audience. Aristotle holds that it is through "simulated representation", mimesis, that we respond to the acting on the stage which is conveying to us what the characters feel, so that we may empathise with them in this way through the mimetic form of dramatic roleplay.

It is the task of the dramatist to produce the tragic enactment in order to accomplish this empathy by means of what is taking place on stage. In short, catharsis can only be achieved if we see something that is both recognisable and distant. Aristotle argued that literature is more interesting as a means of learning than history, because history deals with specific facts that have happened, and which are contingent, whereas literature, although sometimes based on history, deals with events that could have taken place or ought to have taken place.

Aristotle thought of drama as being "an imitation of an action" and of tragedy as "falling from a higher to a lower estate " and so being removed to a less ideal situation in more tragic circumstances than before. He posited the characters in tragedy as being better than the average human being, and those of comedy as being worse.

Michael Davis, a translator and commentator of Aristotle writes: At first glance, mimesis seems to be a stylizing of reality in which the ordinary features of our world are brought into focus by a certain exaggeration, the relationship of the imitation to the object it imitates being something like the relationship of dancing to walking.

Imitation always involves selecting something from the continuum of experience, thus giving boundaries to what really has no beginning or end. Thus the more "real" the imitation the more fraudulent it becomes. Mimesis shows, rather than tells, by means of directly represented action that is enacted. The narrator may speak as a particular character or may be the "invisible narrator" or even the "all-knowing narrator" who speaks from above in the form of commenting on the action or the characters.

He distinguishes between narration or report diegesis and imitation or representation mimesis. Tragedy and comedy, he goes on to explain, are wholly imitative types; the dithyramb is wholly narrative; and their combination is found in epic poetry.

When reporting or narrating, "the poet is speaking in his own person; he never leads us to suppose that he is any one else"; when imitating, the poet produces an "assimilation of himself to another, either by the use of voice or gesture". In ludology , mimesis is sometimes used to refer to the self-consistency of a represented world, and the availability of in-game rationalisations for elements of the gameplay.

In this context, mimesis has an associated grade: highly self-consistent worlds that provide explanations for their puzzles and game mechanics are said to display a higher degree of mimesis. This usage can be traced back to the essay "Crimes Against Mimesis".

Coleridge begins his thoughts on imitation and poetry from Plato, Aristotle, and Philip Sidney , adopting their concept of imitation of nature instead of other writers. His departure from the earlier thinkers lies in his arguing that art does not reveal a unity of essence through its ability to achieve sameness with nature. Coleridge claims: [T]he composition of a poem is among the imitative arts; and that imitation, as opposed to copying, consists either in the interfusion of the SAME throughout the radically DIFFERENT, or the different throughout a base radically the same.

Coleridge instead argues that the unity of essence is revealed precisely through different materialities and media. Imitation, therefore, reveals the sameness of processes in nature.

Luce Irigaray[ edit ] The Belgian feminist Luce Irigaray used the term to describe a form of resistance where women imperfectly imitate stereotypes about themselves in order to expose and undermine such stereotypes. He describes how a legendary tribe, the "white Indians", or Cuna , have adopted in various representations figures and images reminiscent of the white people they encountered in the past without acknowledging doing so.

Taussig, however, criticises anthropology for reducing yet another culture, that of the Cuna, for having been so impressed by the exotic technologies of the whites that they raised them to the status of gods. Girard notes the productive potential of competition: "It is because of this unprecedented capacity to promote competition within limits that always remain socially, if not individually, acceptable that we have all the amazing achievements of the modern world," but states that competition stifles progress once it becomes an end in itself: "rivals are more apt to forget about whatever objects are the cause of the rivalry and instead become more fascinated with one another.

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Philippe Lacoue-Labarthe

This volume of six essays deals with the relation between philosophy and aesthetics, particularly the role of mimesis in a metaphysics of representation. Comment [] "Typography is a book whose importance has not diminished since its first publication in French in On the contrary, I would say, it is only now that one can truly begin to appreciate the groundbreaking status of these essays. The points it makes, the way it approaches the questions of mimesis, fictionality, and figurality, is unique.

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Samular The second, intertwined with the first, is in fact instrumental in stimulating the rigor with which the first develops. John Protevi — manuscript. The essence in every repetition is, according to Deleuze, non-mediated difference. Benjamin — — Routledge. By making mimesis an essence, Girard betrays mimesis by making laciue-labarthe a property, he claims. This is, as we have seen, clearly an exaggeration. Auerbach never analyses the concept mimesis.

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