Mikanos Justicia secunda Vahl Polyphenol extraction and characterization of Justicia secunda Vahl leaves for traditional medicinal uses. Emmel, Itano and osmotic fragility tests were used to test the effect of anthocyanin extracts from Justicia secunda leaves on haemoglobin S solubility and sickle cell membrane stability. Treated SS red blood cells recovered a normal, classical biconcave form with a radius of 3. At each step of the pilot plant process, the co-products obtained were analyzed for total polyphenol and total flavonoid contents by the UV-vis spectrophotometric method. This lead to the changes in the shape of vahp blood cells and anaemia. Anthocyanins from Justicia secunda were found to possess anti-sickling activity.
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Abstract Background Justicia secunda Vahl. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of J. In vitro anti-inflammatory assays were performed using heat-induced bovine serum albumin BSA denaturation and erythrocyte membrane stabilization assays. Carrageenan and formaldehyde induced inflammation in rat models were used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of MEJSL in vivo. Diclofenac sodium was used as a reference drug. In addition, liver and kidney function assays and hematological analysis were carried out.
MEJSL suppressed carrageenan-induced paw edema at the sixth hour by MEJSL inhibited formaldehyde-induced paw edema by Animals treated with varying doses of MEJSL had reduced plasma aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase activities; urea and creatinine concentrations; and modulated hematological parameters when compared with the untreated control group. Conclusions Findings from this study showed that MEJSL exhibited substantial anti-inflammatory actions in the in vitro and in vivo models.
It also indicated that MEJSL anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action could be through interference with phase 2 inflammatory stressors, upregulation of cytoprotective genes, stabilization of inflammatory cell membranes and immunomodulatory activity. Background Medicinal plants have been used since time immemorial to relieve symptoms and treat diseases.
It has played a vital role in health care systems where a substantial population of the world depends on the use of herbs as medicine [ 1 ].
Nowadays, there is an increasing interest among researchers to investigate the pharmacological effects and potential mechanisms of action of sundry medicinal plants using in vitro and in vivo models [ 2 , 3 ]. Justicia secunda Vahl. Justicia secunda grows in humid soil around rivers or creeks and can be located in tropical and pantropical regions of the world [ 6 ].
In folklore medicine, J. The leaf decoction of J. Justicia secunda leaves have been demonstrated to possess anti-sickling, antimicrobial, antihypertensive and hematinic activities [ 4 , 6 , 8 , 9 ].
The anti-inflammatory potential of J. Phytochemical evaluation of J. In addition, quindoline, luteolin, auranamide, secundarellone A, B and C, aurantamide acetate, and pyrrolidone derivatives have been documented for J. It can be classified as either acute or chronic inflammation. Acute inflammation occurs as an immediate response to trauma, usually between two hours while chronic inflammation occurs as an ongoing response to a longer-term medical condition [ 12 , 13 ].
Chronic inflammation has been claimed to cause the most significant death in the World [ 14 ]. Clinically, inflammation is defined as a pathophysiological process characterized by pain, redness, edema, heat, and loss of tissue function [ 15 ].
This process involves changes in blood flow, increased permeability of vascular tissues, and tissue destruction via the activation and migration of leucocytes with the synthesis of reactive oxygen species ROS , and local inflammatory mediators, including prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and platelet-activating factors induced by phospholipase A2, cyclooxygenases, and lipoxygenases [ 16 , 17 ].
Conventional steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAID used in the treatment of acute inflammatory disorders have been unsuccessful in the treatment of chronic inflammatory disorders including rheumatoid arthritis. These conventional anti-inflammatory drugs have also been associated with unwanted side effects [ 18 , 19 ].
This has led to the search for an alternative remedy, especially from medicinal plants to treat these inflammatory disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of MEJSL, using in vitro and in vivo inflammation models with the rationale to provide an insight into the potential anti-inflammatory mechanisms of action. The plant was identified and authenticated at Forestry Research Institute of Nigeria, Ibadan, Oyo State with voucher specimen number They were pulverized using a mechanical blender and sieved to obtain the fine powder form.
Eighty grams of pulverized J. The obtained suspension was filtered using Whatman No. The obtained concentrate yield was 8. Evaluation of in vitro anti-inflammation activity Inhibition of heat-induced bovine serum albumin denaturation assay Effect of methanol extract of J.
Erythrocyte membrane stabilization assay The effect of MEJSL on hypotonicity-induced erythrocyte membrane hemolysis assay was performed following the method adopted by Shinde et al.
Whole blood sample 5 mL was obtained from human by venipuncture using a syringe and immediately transferred to an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA bottle. The blood sample was centrifuged for 10 min at rpm rpm and the supernatant was carefully removed while the packed red blood cells were washed in freshly prepared isosaline solution 0.
Subsequently, the blood was washed and centrifuged repeatedly until the supernatant became clear. The assay mixture contained 1 mL sodium phosphate buffer pH 7. The rats were allowed to acclimatized and fed with commercial pellet rat chow and water for 14 days. The rats were housed in plastic cages and maintained following the National Institute of Health NIH documentation on the guide for the care and use of laboratory animals [ 23 ]. Experimental animal design The rats were randomly distributed into 10 groups by a feature of weight, for two separate investigations, consisting of 5 rats per group.
Experiment 1: carrageenan-induced inflammation model Effect of MEJSL on carrageenan-induced inflammation was carried out as described by Winter et al. This experiment involved five groups of five rats each, the rats were fasted overnight and had free access to water prior to the day of the experiment.
The experimental design was as follows: Group I: rats were orally administered with 1 mL 0. Prior to the treatments, the initial paw edema of each rat was measured using a micrometer screw gauge. One hour after treatment, paw edema was induced by injecting 0.
Subsequently, the increase in left paw edema was measured at an hour interval for 6 h post-treatment. Experiment 2: formaldehyde-induced inflammation model Effect of MEJSL on formaldehyde-induced inflammation assay was carried out by following a modified method described by Agnel and Shobana [ 25 ].
The study involved five groups of five rats each, the rats were fasted overnight and had free access to water prior to the day of the experiment which lasted for 7 days. The experimental design was as follows: Group I: rats were orally administered with 0. In the first and third days of treatment, 0.
The increase in paw edema was measured using a micrometer screw gauge. This was done 30 min before the induction of arthritis, and every 24 h for 7 days. Biochemical assays On the eight-day of the formaldehyde-induced inflammation model study, blood samples were collected by using 5 mL hypodermal syringes through cardiac puncture and transferred into EDTA bottles and heparin bottles to avoid clotting. Kidney function analysis Effect of MEJSL on plasma creatinine and urea concentrations were measured following the quantitative colorimetric methods as outlined in the Randox kit Randox, United Kingdom.
Sample T-test analytical method was used to evaluate the difference between means in the in vitro anti-inflammatory experiments. Table 1 Effect of methanol extract of J.
Plants of Saint Lucia
The effect of extracts of Justicia secunda leaves on red blood cells RBC count and haemoglobin Hb concentration was investigated in adult Sprague-Dawley rats to establish haematinic activity. RBC counts and Hb concentration were analysed using a haematology analyser at 3-day intervals for 21 days. Journal of Biosciences and Medicines, 8, Anaemia is a global public health concern especially in developing countries . Malaria, helminth infections and micronutrient deficiencies are the main causes or risk factors for anaemia . Medicinal plants have found significant roles in the treatment of diseases and drug discovery . Justicia secunda Vahl family: Acanthaceae commonly known as St.
It has also been postulated that the red cells of patients with sickle cell disease contain a higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. Publications des agents du Cirad. This provides a possible molecular basis for earlier reports vahp the anti-sickling properties of anthocyanins from some Congolese plants and their use in the management of sickle cell disease by Congolese traditional healers. Water extracts of Justicia secunda leaves are used by village communities in southern countries to prepare traditional medicines at home. The beverage is usually obtained by boiling the plant in water.
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