His father, Jakob Freud — , a wool merchant, had two sons, Emanuel — and Philipp — , by his first marriage. He proved to be an outstanding pupil and graduated from the Matura in with honors. His research work on the biology of nervous tissue proved seminal for the subsequent discovery of the neuron in the s. His research work in cerebral anatomy led to the publication of an influential paper on the palliative effects of cocaine in and his work on aphasia would form the basis of his first book On the Aphasias: a Critical Study, published in
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History[ edit ] Freud first used the term psychoanalysis in French in Die Traumdeutung The Interpretation of Dreams , which Freud saw as his "most significant work", appeared in November Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. He then wrote a monograph about this subject. Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms.
Breuer wrote that many factors could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet ; while Freud contended that at the root of hysterical symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations. It remained unpublished in his lifetime.
This became the received historical account until challenged by several Freud scholars in the latter part of the 20th century who argued that he had imposed his preconceived notions on his patients. Freud formulated his second psychological theory— which hypothesises that the unconscious has or is a "primary process" consisting of symbolic and condensed thoughts, and a "secondary process" of logical, conscious thoughts. This theory was published in his book, The Interpretation of Dreams.
This "topographic theory" is still popular in much of Europe, although it has fallen out of favour in much of North America. His early formulation included the idea that because of societal restrictions, sexual wishes were repressed into an unconscious state, and that the energy of these unconscious wishes could be turned into anxiety or physical symptoms. Therefore, the early treatment techniques, including hypnotism and abreaction, were designed to make the unconscious conscious in order to relieve the pressure and the apparently resulting symptoms.
This method would later on be left aside by Freud, giving free association a bigger role. In On Narcissism  Freud turned his attention to the subject of narcissism. Still using an energic system, Freud characterized the difference between energy directed at the self versus energy directed at others, called cathexis.
By , in "Mourning and Melancholia", he suggested that certain depressions were caused by turning guilt-ridden anger on the self. By , Freud addressed the power of identification with the leader and with other members in groups as a motivation for behavior Group Psychology and the Analysis of the Ego. Also, it was the first appearance of his "structural theory" consisting of three new concepts id, ego, and superego.
Hence, Freud characterised repression as both a cause and a result of anxiety. In , in Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety, Freud characterised how intrapsychic conflict among drive and superego wishes and guilt caused anxiety , and how that anxiety could lead to an inhibition of mental functions, such as intellect and speech.
According to Freud, the Oedipus complex, was at the centre of neurosis, and was the foundational source of all art, myth, religion, philosophy, therapy—indeed of all human culture and civilization. It was the first time that anyone in the inner circle had characterised something other than the Oedipus complex as contributing to intrapsychic development, a notion that was rejected by Freud and his followers at the time. Within a year, Sigmund Freud died.
Led by Heinz Hartmann , Kris, Rappaport and Lowenstein, the group built upon understandings of the synthetic function of the ego as a mediator in psychic functioning[ jargon ]. Hartmann in particular distinguished between autonomous ego functions such as memory and intellect which could be secondarily affected by conflict and synthetic functions which were a result of compromise formation[ jargon ]. These "Ego Psychologists" of the s paved a way to focus analytic work by attending to the defenses mediated by the ego before exploring the deeper roots to the unconscious conflicts.
In addition there was burgeoning interest in child psychoanalysis. Although criticized since its inception, psychoanalysis has been used as a research tool into childhood development,  and is still used to treat certain mental disturbances. In the first decade of the 21st century, there were approximately 35 training institutes for psychoanalysis in the United States accredited by the American Psychoanalytic Association APsaA , which is a component organization of the International Psychoanalytical Association IPA , and there are over graduated psychoanalysts practicing in the United States.
The IPA accredits psychoanalytic training centers through such "component organisations" throughout the rest of the world, including countries such as Serbia, France, Germany, Austria, Italy, Switzerland,  and many others, as well as about six institutes directly in the United States.
Theories[ edit ] The predominant psychoanalytic theories can be organised into several theoretical schools. Although these theoretical schools differ, most of them emphasize the influence of unconscious elements on the conscious. There has also been considerable work done on consolidating elements of conflicting theories cf.
Killingmo, and S. In the 21st century, psychoanalytic ideas are embedded in Western culture,[ vague ] especially in fields such as childcare , education , literary criticism , cultural studies , mental health , and particularly psychotherapy.
Though there is a mainstream of evolved analytic ideas , there are groups who follow the precepts of one or more of the later theoreticians. Psychoanalytic ideas also play roles in some types of literary analysis such as Archetypal literary criticism. Topographic theory[ edit ] Topographic theory was named and first described by Sigmund Freud in The Interpretation of Dreams These systems are not anatomical structures of the brain but, rather, mental processes.
Although Freud retained this theory throughout his life he largely replaced it with the Structural theory. Structural theory[ edit ] Structural theory divides the psyche into the id , the ego , and the super-ego. The super-ego is held to be the part of the ego in which self-observation, self-criticism and other reflective and judgmental faculties develop.
The ego and the super-ego are both partly conscious and partly unconscious. Ego psychology[ edit ] Ego psychology was initially suggested by Freud in Inhibitions, Symptoms and Anxiety Leo Bellak was a later contributor. This series of constructs, paralleling some of the later developments of cognitive theory, includes the notions of autonomous ego functions: mental functions not dependent, at least in origin, on intrapsychic conflict.
Such functions include: sensory perception, motor control, symbolic thought, logical thought, speech, abstraction, integration synthesis , orientation, concentration, judgment about danger, reality testing, adaptive ability, executive decision-making, hygiene, and self-preservation. Freud noted that inhibition is one method that the mind may utilize to interfere with any of these functions in order to avoid painful emotions.
Hartmann s pointed out that there may be delays or deficits in such functions. Frosch described differences in those people who demonstrated damage to their relationship to reality, but who seemed able to test it. According to ego psychology, ego strengths, later described by Otto F. Kernberg , include the capacities to control oral, sexual, and destructive impulses; to tolerate painful affects without falling apart; and to prevent the eruption into consciousness of bizarre symbolic fantasy.
Synthetic functions, in contrast to autonomous functions, arise from the development of the ego and serve the purpose of managing conflict processes. Defenses are synthetic functions that protect the conscious mind from awareness of forbidden impulses and thoughts. One purpose of ego psychology has been to emphasize that some mental functions can be considered to be basic, rather than derivatives of wishes, affects, or defenses.
However, autonomous ego functions can be secondarily affected because of unconscious conflict. For example, a patient may have an hysterical amnesia memory being an autonomous function because of intrapsychic conflict wishing not to remember because it is too painful. Taken together, the above theories present a group of metapsychological assumptions. Therefore, the inclusive group of the different classical theories provides a cross-sectional view of human mentation.
There are six "points of view", five described by Freud and a sixth added by Hartmann. Unconscious processes can therefore be evaluated from each of these six points of view.
The "points of view" are: 1. Topographic 2. Dynamic the theory of conflict 3. Economic the theory of energy flow 4. Structural 5. Genetic propositions concerning origin and development of psychological functions and 6. Adaptational psychological phenomena as it relates to the external world. Modern conflict theory addresses emotional symptoms and character traits as complex solutions to mental conflict. Moreover, healthy functioning adaptive is also determined, to a great extent, by resolutions of conflict.
A major objective of modern conflict-theory psychoanalysis is to change the balance of conflict in a patient by making aspects of the less adaptive solutions also called "compromise formations" conscious so that they can be rethought, and more adaptive solutions found.
Object relations theory[ edit ] Object relations theory attempts to explain the ups and downs of human relationships through a study of how internal representations of the self and others are organized. It is not suggested that one should trust everyone, for example. Concepts regarding internal representations also sometimes termed, "introspects", "self and object representations", or "internalization of self and other" although often attributed to Melanie Klein , were actually first mentioned by Sigmund Freud in his early concepts of drive theory Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality , John Frosch, Otto Kernberg , Salman Akhtar and Sheldon Bach have developed the theory of self and object constancy as it affects adult psychiatric problems such as psychosis and borderline states.
During adolescence, Erik Erikson —s described the "identity crisis", that involves identity-diffusion anxiety. In order for an adult to be able to experience "Warm-ETHICS" warmth, empathy, trust, holding environment Winnicott , identity, closeness, and stability in relationships see Blackman, Defenses: How the Mind Shields Itself, , the teenager must resolve the problems with identity and redevelop self and object constancy.
Self psychology[ edit ] Self psychology emphasizes the development of a stable and integrated sense of self through empathic contacts with other humans, primary significant others conceived of as "selfobjects".
The process of treatment proceeds through "transmuting internalizations" in which the patient gradually internalizes the selfobject functions provided by the therapist. Jacques Lacan and Lacanian psychoanalysis[ edit ] Lacanian psychoanalysis , which integrates psychoanalysis with structural linguistics and Hegelian philosophy, is especially popular in France and parts of Latin America. Lacanian psychoanalysis is a departure from the traditional British and American psychoanalysis, which is predominantly Ego psychology.
In the United Kingdom and the United States, his ideas are most widely used to analyze texts in literary theory. This is contrasted with the primacy of intrapsychic forces, as in classical psychoanalysis. Main article: Culturalist psychoanalysts Some psychoanalysts have been labeled culturalist, because of the prominence they attributed culture in the genesis of behavior.
For Freud, male is subject and female is object. For Lacan , the "woman" can either accept the phallic symbolic as an object or incarnate a lack in the symbolic dimension that informs the structure of the human subject. Feminist psychoanalysis is mainly post-Freudian and post-Lacanian with theorists like Toril Moi , Joan Copjec , Juliet Mitchell ,  Teresa Brennan  and Griselda Pollock ,  following French feminist psychoanalysis,  the gaze and sexual difference in, of and from the feminine.
Adaptive paradigm of psychoanalysis and psychotherapy[ edit ] Main article: Robert Langs The "adaptive paradigm of psychotherapy" develops out of the work of Robert Langs. The adaptive paradigm interprets psychic conflict primarily in terms of conscious and unconscious adaptation to reality. It was introduced by Stephen Mitchell.
Fonagy and Target, in London, have propounded their view of the necessity of helping certain detached, isolated patients, develop the capacity for "mentalization" associated with thinking about relationships and themselves. Arietta Slade, Susan Coates , and Daniel Schechter in New York have additionally contributed to the application of relational psychoanalysis to treatment of the adult patient-as-parent, the clinical study of mentalization in parent-infant relationships, and the intergenerational transmission of attachment and trauma.
Interpersonal-relational psychoanalysis[ edit ] The term interpersonal-relational psychoanalysis is often used as a professional identification. Psychoanalysts under this broader umbrella debate about what precisely are the differences between the two schools, without any current clear consensus. Intersubjective psychoanalysis[ edit ] The term " intersubjectivity " was introduced in psychoanalysis by George E. Atwood and Robert Stolorow Fosshage, Donna M. Levenson, Jay Greenberg , Edward R.
History[ edit ] Freud first used the term psychoanalysis in French in Die Traumdeutung The Interpretation of Dreams , which Freud saw as his "most significant work", appeared in November Freud was a neurologist trying to find an effective treatment for patients with neurotic or hysterical symptoms. He then wrote a monograph about this subject. Charcot had introduced hypnotism as an experimental research tool and developed the photographic representation of clinical symptoms. Breuer wrote that many factors could result in such symptoms, including various types of emotional trauma, and he also credited work by others such as Pierre Janet ; while Freud contended that at the root of hysterical symptoms were repressed memories of distressing occurrences, almost always having direct or indirect sexual associations. It remained unpublished in his lifetime.
Rodio se u Freiburghu u Moravskoj 6. Freud je sin iz drugog braka svog oca. Godine Ja osobno nisam siguran. One su duboko isprepletene. Istovremeno je bio i vrlo osjetljiv i vrlo hrabar.
Sigmund Freud i psihoanaliza