FATAWA E ALAMGIRI PDF

The Fatawa is notable for several reasons: It spanned 30 volumes originally in various languages, but is now printed in modern editions as 6 or 10 volumes. It served as the basis of judicial law throughout the Mughal Empire It created a legal system that treated people differently based on their religion. Fatawa-i Alamgiri as the documented Islamic law book, became the foundation of legal system of India. Further, the English-speaking judges relied on Muslim law specialist elites to establish the law of the land, because the original Fatawa-i Alamgiri Al-Hindiya was written in Arabic. This created a social class of Islamic gentry that jealously guarded their expertise, legal authority and autonomy. It also led to inconsistent interpretation-driven, variegated judgments in similar legal cases, an issue that troubled British colonial officials.

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Sayyid is the title given in Islamic culture to people descended from Hassan, grandson of Prophet through his daughter Fatima.

He does NOT know that these gods are cosmic allegories-not mortals. In the Tantric cosmology, the whole universe is perceived as being created, penetrated and sustained by two fundamental forces, which are permanently in a perfect, indestructible UNION. These forces or universal aspects are called Shiva and Shakti. Both Shiva and Shakti are Consciousness Shiva is the changeless static aspect of Consciousness, and Shakti is the kinetic, active aspect of the same Consciousness.

Through uniting with Purusha , Pragati gave form to his spirit and created the universe. Purusha symbolizes consciousness, the masculine principle. Pragati symbolizes the feminine principle, the activating energy The cosmos in all its manifestations, as an act of love.

The relationship between say- Shakti and Shiva is the dance of consciousness and energy Shakti is manifested by Shiva only during creation and is withdrawn into himself at the end of creation.

This is for the perceptive. Modern science repeats from our Vedas that matter and energy are interchangeable. So does consciousness and energy. Lord Ganesha is mentioned in the Rig Veda 2. He ruled as the fourth caliph from to , but he is regarded as the rightful immediate successor to prophet Muhammad by the Shia Muslims.

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Fatawa Alamgiri Urdu Complete Pdf Free Download

Criminal and personal law personal law for South Asian Muslims in 18th century, their inheritance rights,[8] personal law on gifts,[9] apostates neither have nor leave inheritance rights after they are executed,[10] the guardian of a Muslim girl may arrange and force her to marry against her will,[11] a Muslim boy of understanding who has reached puberty , required the consent of his guardian to marry. It declared the punishment of flogging or stoning to death Rajm , depending on the status of the accused. As the power shifted from Muslim rulers in India to colonial Britain, the colonial authorities decided to retain local institutions and laws, to operate under traditional pre-colonial laws instead of introducing secular European common law system. Further, the English-speaking judges relied on Muslim law specialist elites to establish the law of the land, because the original Fatawa-i Alamgiri Al-Hindiya was written in Arabic. This created a social class of Islamic gentry that jealously guarded their expertise, legal authority and autonomy. It also led to inconsistent interpretation-driven, variegated judgments in similar legal cases, an issue that troubled British colonial officials.

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