Saturday, March 26, Aturan dalam Interaksi Sosial Dalam kajian sosiologis, ada beberapa aturan mengenai interaksi sosial yang berbeda dengan kelima faktor yang telah disebutkan di atas. Karl dan Yoels menyebutkan tiga jenis aturan dalam interaksi sosial, yaitu sebagai berikut. Hall mengenai konsep jarak sosial atau proxemics. Menurut Hall, dalam interaksi sosial, orang cenderung menggunakan empat macam jarak, yaitu jarak intim intimate distance , jarak pribadi personal distance , jarak sosial social distance , dan jarak publik public distance. Pada jarak intim sekitar cm , terjadi keterlibatan intensif pancaindera dengan tubuh orang lain.
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Hall, Ray L. Richard Diebold, Jr. Edmonson, J. Fischer, Dell Hymes, Solon T. McClellan, Donald S. Marshall, G. Milner, Harvey B. JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship.
In tainsto noneof thesedirectly. Educated the University Denver A. Edmondson, L. McClellan, B. Milner, J. Trager, and AndrewP. I decided invent newterm to a that wouldindicate, in general, whatthefield was about. Among terms considered the I werehuman topology, chaology, study empty the of space,oriology, of thestudy boundaries, the of chorology, study organized space.
I finally chose "proxemics" the mostsuitablefor thataudience as mostlikely encounter topicin thenearfuture. It is therefore to important specify which levelsof awareness is one describing.
Direct will few questioning yield ifanysignificant as variables, it willwith suchtopics kinship housetype.
Sincetheseare builtintothelanguage, are they to hard the for speaker consciously manipulate. Americans overseas were confrontedwith a variety of to the two nervous systems and the two brains in becauseof culturaldifferences the handling respond similarly. Peoplestood"too close"during on of assumption, particularly conver- whenthecultures different. Theynot onlystructure U. In England, differently, experience differently, is "programmed. Sometimes is accomthis to yards, found that plishedby individuals suburbanites, accustomed unfenced "tuning out" one or moreof the highwalls theremade themfeel "shutout.
Therefore, therecan shock,oftento the point of illness,for some members be no universal indexof crowding, knownway of no of the Americanoverseas colonies. Examinationof the measuring crowding all cultures. These observa- ed? As I have stated istsfrom manydisciplines, including pathology, bioelsewhere : chemistry, experimental psychology, and kinesics.
In built into people and, therefore, a, I wrote: They strikeat the root of the doctrineof "free will," that the of because they indicatethat all men are captivesof the 8 By "all" one assumes Sapirmeant members a given ethniccommunity. We really do not know by what means the brain interprets data fed to it by the senses. Recentlytherehas the been some progressin solving thisproblem. The solutionappears to hinge on contrasts builtinto the receptors rather thansimple stimulatiohi leading to a specificresponse McCulloch One learns with time to pay attentionto casual remarks engenderedby the original response.
Does he thinkI smell bad? The reality but what differentorganisms perceive is determined largely by "what theyintendto do about it," in the wordsof a colleague. The workof Condon and others has demonstrated extrathe ordinary to degree which peopleare capableof responding each to other and coordinating behavior their during conversations. Frameby-frame examination moviestakenat 24 and 48 frames of per secondand studyof simultaneous electroencephalograms reveals organized, coherent, synchronous behaviorthat is not normally observable without aid of high-speed the cameras.
Basically, in thesimplest and possibleterms, is proxemics notprimarily concerned withtheobservation recording the and of detailsof gestures and body movements.
Proxemics deals with architecture, furniture, the use of space,whereas and at kinesics, is present, only indirectly concerned with the setting. Proxemic notation simplerthan that employed kinesics. Photoby H. Hediger, individual in illustrating distance the blackheaded gull. Hediger , p. Personal distance pelicans. In , I sug- FIG. Pelicans on a rail. The maintenanceof uniformdistances between the species can be the water be gestedthe term"infra-culture" used to designate Fig.
Hediger has tions space. Hedigeris deeplycommitted to 13 the positionthat the most commonerrorin interthathas elaboratedand specializedhis extensions to thepointwheretheyare rapidlyreplacing nature. His studiesof the domestication to a stateof dynamic equilibrium. Man is now in the positionof how it marksits territory, example, thecommolding for or creating own biotope. He is, therefore, the ponents his in thatgo to makeup itsbiotope , also stress but positionof determining what kind of organismhe will theimportance knowing specific of the way in which be.
Thisis a frightening in thought view of how little thespecieshandlesdistance beyond territorial strictly we knowaboutmanand his needs.
It also meansthat considerations Hediger,, For examin a verydeep sense,man is creating different types ple, thereduction elimination theflight or of reaction of peoplein his slums, mental his hospitals, cities, is essential thesurvival an organism captivity. What is more,the problems man is In addition, provides withan operational it us definfacingin trying createone world are muchmore itionof domestication.
Fried distances see Figures1, 2, 3. He has also demonand Gleicher ,Gans ,Abrams A three-way 12 Margaret Mead has also suggested anthropologistsfriendly polemicbymail between that McBride, Hediger, and me has havemuchto gain from study theworks ethologists.
The loading platform tracksand the other by a streetdense with one side by streetcar traffic. One of a series of photographstaken over a two year This particular in to period recordpersonaldistances public settings. Thatis, theorganism itsbiotope and constitute single, a a cohesive system within series of larger To systems. There no evidence infection, was of or starvation, other obvious cause explain mass to the mortality.
This world is made up of the danger of drawing analogies from non-human iformation communicated the creaturefromthe outside in the to of social and group responses formof messagespicked up by its sense organs. Some of the time we make our observations context, in but suggestivefor of oftenwe do not. Their interpretation of and operationally. Berelson and The work terms "laction chains. If a sequence is brokenor interrupt- when it is out of context. At the risk of stating the obvious, I what appears to be a growingconsensusamong ed, it is necessaryto startover again fromthe begin- wish to underscore ethologistsand ecologists that the organism and its environment ning.
Carpenter , for example, lists 32 In associatedwith territoriality. Each animal also inhabits a private subjective world that with. His studiesof muskrats to the stress from crowding are most revealing. He states that for share with men the propensity growingsavage under muskrats stressfromcrowding italics mine.
Italianson a walkway between FIG. West Africans. Tiheir In mystudyof proxemics, of myobjectives one has at and neverexceeded Calhoun With beento examine smallsliceof lifein theUnitedStates a becameso disruptive a populationof , fighting to -the experience space-and to learnaboutsomeof of normalmaternalcare that only a few of the young the things Americans take for granted. My emphasi themselves survived.
The ratsdid not distribute evenly has not been on either manifest even the latent the or the throughout pen, but organizedinto a dozen colo- content rather thestructural but on the details, implici the 12 niesaveraging ratseach apparently maximum perceptual elements. Where doesone look In physicaland social pathology. These are identifiable and finitein number. Thesestructure werenotknownfor points andconceptual formulation.
Some of the research techniques, briefly described below,are: observation, experiment, interviews structured unstructured , and analysisof the Englishlexicon,and the studyof space as it is recreated literature in art. For proxemics, camera the down my neck.
It you. One of myassistants, German, illus- He was so to keepherhandsto herself. Not at all. In ourrecent of investigations proxemic behavior of utelytaboo in another. Photographer of a given culturestructure space at various levels of haveprovided valuable insights a number on of abstraction setting simplesituations whichthey subjects in by up at the points which groups involved were odds. They manipulateobjects.
For and "far apart" and "side by side" and "next to each in example, photographing lowerclassNegro,Puerto For the past threeyears,a motorizeddrive, exposurebulk film 35 mm Nikon has been used. The 35 mm negativeenlarges well and provides excellent detail at low cost, and the camera is somewhat less bulky than a high-quality16 mm movie camera.
The half-frame mm camera has also proved to be a very con35 venient,compact instrument. My experience in interculturalrelations had taught me that differences the proxemicbehavior in lead to what Goffman calls "alienation in encounters. They were rarely able to tell us. Whilephotography the controlof a motorizeddrive camera and told to happenof onlya supplement otherforms observation-an push the buttonwheneverhe saw something to extension the visualmemory, it were-it is an ing, he took frameafterframeof what I, as a white, of as absolutely aid indispensable in recording proxemic middle class American,consideredidentical pictures.
It freezes Interviews with the Negro photographerand the that they were acting out and actionsand allows the investigator examinese- subjects demonstrated to dialogue in which the quencesover and over again.
Edward T. Hall
Jobs Proxemics Twenty study abroad students gather for a conference at an international university. The students arrive in groups by nationality and spend some time talking before the conference. The Japanese students converse softly in one corner of the room. Though they stand close together, they carefully maintain a personal distance from each other. The American students, in contrast, stand in a loose-knit group, talking loudly and gesturing enthusiastically.
Edward T. Hall: Proxemic Theory, 1966
Hall, Ray L. Richard Diebold, Jr. Edmonson, J. Fischer, Dell Hymes, Solon T.
Center for Spatially Integrated Social Science
El espacio sociofugal tiende a mantener aisladas a las personas y produce soledad, como, por ejemplo, hospitales o bibliotecas. Sin embargo, este uso del espacio puede dar lugar a conflictos sociales cuando el territorio se ve invadido. Sin embargo, existe diferentes tipos de espacio. Distancia causal-personal: se da entre 46 y cm. Estas distancias se dan en la oficina, reuniones, asambleas, fiestas, conversaciones amistosas o de trabajo.